3D Seismic Imaging by Biondo L. Biondi

By Biondo L. Biondi

Seismic photographs are the most important to present day exploration and reservoir tracking. '3D Seismic Imaging provides basic options and state of the art equipment for imaging mirrored image seismic info. The publication coherently offers the most parts of seismic imaging - data-acquisition geometry, migration, and speed estimation - by means of exposing the hyperlinks that intertwine them. The publication emphasizes graphical realizing over theoretical improvement. a number of man made and box facts examples illustrate the presentation of mathematical algorithms. the quantity contains a DVD that includes a subset (C3-narrow-azimuth vintage info set) of the SEG-EAGE salt facts set and of the corresponding speed version. The DVD additionally contains a whole set of PDF slides that may be used to educate the fabric awarded within the publication. additionally Available:

Geophysics within the Affairs of Mankind - ISBN 1560800879
Seismic True-Amplitude Imaging - ISBN 1560801433

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Example text

In contrast, for depth migration, we need an estimate of interval velocity at every point in the subsurface. As we will see in Chapter 11, the quality of the data focusing can be measured from the image obtained by prestack migration. For time migration, average velocities can be estimated directly by measuring the focusing quality on a point-to-point basis at each image location. This direct estimate is possible because the average velocity (Vrms) enters directly in the expressions of the corresponding summation surfaces.

H. Gray, 2001, From the Hagedoorn imaging technique to Kirchhoff migration and inversion: Geophysical Prospecting, 49, no. 6, 629–643. ˇ Cervený and Pˇsenˇcík, 1983, Gaussian beam and paraxial ray approximation in three-dimensional inhomogeneFigure 17. Migrated inline section of the SEG-EAGE salt ous media: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of Amerdata set, with a wide migration aperture in the inline direction ica, 70, 47–77. and a narrow aperture in the crossline direction (αx = 70° and Cohen, J.

Figure 1 shows both these migration that focuses data along the offset axes. The only summation surfaces. 3. The two surxm, ym), which can be measured directly from the data. faces are tangent at the top and all along the curve oriented The same stacking velocity function also can be used, in the crossline direction y and passing through the apex. The possibly with some corrections, to focus the data along the interpretation of this observation is that flat reflections and, midpoint axis by zero-offset time migration.

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