By Weilie Zhou
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Additional info for Advanced scanning microscopy for nanotechnology techniques and applications
Although the electron multiplier was in principle sensitive enough, it suffered from the fact that the cathode assemblies were exposed to the pump oil, water vapor, and other contaminants that were present in the specimen chambers of these early instruments with the result that the sensitivity rapidly degraded unless the multiplier was cleaned after every new sample was inserted. 24 Weilie Zhou et al. The solution to this problem, and the development that made the SEM a commercial reality, was provided by Everhart and Thornley .
Newbury, D. Joy, C. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer, and J. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 3rd edn, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York (2003). 6. C. W. Oatley, The Scanning Electron Microscope, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1972). 7. J. I. Goldstein and H. Yakowitz, Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy, Plenum Press, New York (1975). 40 Weilie Zhou et al. 8. Y. X. Chen, L. J. Campbell, and W. L. Zhou, J. Cryst. Growth, 270 (2004) 505. 9.
Several detectors are used to detect different signals: solid state BSE detectors for BSEs; the ET detector for secondary and BSEs; energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer and 1. 21. Image formation system in a typical scanning electron microscope. wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for the characteristic x-rays; and photomultipliers for cathodoluminescence. 3. The detected signal is also processed and projected on the CRT screen or camera. The scanning process of CRT or camera is synchronized with the electron beam by the scanning signal generator and hence a point-to-point image for the scanning area is produced.