By L E Carmichael
Engineers layout our sleek international. They mix technological know-how and know-how to create tremendous automobiles, buildings, and items. This name examines striking feats of civil engineering. attractive textual content explores large bridges, the worlds tallest skyscraper, and the Panama Canal. It additionally examines the engineers who made those initiatives a truth and lines the historical past of the self-discipline. suitable sidebars, lovely photographs, and a thesaurus relief readers knowing of the subject. A hands-on venture and career-planning chart provide readers a feeling of what it takes to turn into an engineer. extra good points comprise a desk of contents, a particular bibliography, resource notes, and an index, plus crucial evidence approximately every one featured feat of engineering. Aligned to universal middle criteria and correlated to country criteria. crucial Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a department of ABDO.
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Additional info for Amazing Feats of Civil Engineering
10 49 The building’s foundation was finished by March 2005. Dubai’s groundwater contains high concentrations of corrosive chloride and sulfates, and the foundation had to be durable enough to withstand their effects. Engineers added silica fume to the concrete to reduce the ability of water to seep through, but a cathodic protection system was also needed. This system prevented corrosion by running electricity 50 through a titanium mesh next to the steel reinforcing bars. The presence of electricity prevents the formation of rust, which along with chloride and sulfates can weaken the bars.
Part of the solution is emergency elevators known as lifeboats. Located in the building’s structural core, lifeboats run on emergency power and are controlled by Dubai Civil Defense. Serving all the sky lobbies, they reduce evacuation time dramatically compared to using the stairs alone. Engineers also adapted the tower’s existing structural features to increase its safety in an emergency. Thick, reinforced concrete walls surround exit stairs and dedicated firefighter’s elevators. These walls also enclose a radical new design feature: refuge rooms.
Like cord inside a beaded necklace, steel tendons pulled the concrete components together and held them in place. A single tendon contained between four and 31 cables, each one a 41 SURVEYING WITH SATELLITES To ensure precise placement of bridge talking to the GPS gurus who were working components, Svanen used the Global on improved versions of the system,” SCI Positioning System (GPS). GPS units surveying manager Mirek Bursa said. “We receive signals from orbiting satellites, had to trust that developments would calculating position based on the take place and the accuracy we needed difference between the time the signal would be there when we started placing was sent and the time it was received.