By Michael Woods
Were you aware . . .Ancient cultures measured time competently with water clocks? An engineer within the first century B.C. designed an odometer to calculate distance traveled? humans computed the 1st values of pi approximately 4 thousand years in the past? Computing expertise is as previous as human society itself. the 1st people on the earth used simple computing abilities. They counted via carving tally marks in bone. They used physique components and easy instruments to degree. Over the centuries, historic peoples realized extra approximately computing. humans within the old heart East used scales to degree items for buying and selling. the traditional Egyptians wrote textbooks together with multiplication and department difficulties. the traditional chinese language constructed an abacus for quick calculations. historical Greeks made advances in geometry. What forms of instruments and methods did old mathematicians use? Which in their innovations and discoveries have stood the attempt of time? and the way did the ancients set the degree for our personal glossy computing? study extra in historic Computing expertise.
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Additional info for Ancient Computing Technology: From Abacuses to Water Clocks (Technology in Ancient Cultures)
The Dresden Codex, written in around the 1100s, is a compilation of earlier Maya almanacs and astrological and religious information. , when the codex was probably written. Mayan numerals consisted of dots and bars. One dot stood for 1, and two dots stood for 2. One bar stood for 5, and two bars stood for 10. The Maya combined dots and bars to write larger numbers. One bar and four dots, for instance, stood for 9. Two bars and two dots stood for 12. Z e r o Pi o n e e r s The ancient Maya were one of the earliest peoples to use a symbol for zero as a placeholder.
They were part of the Brahmi script. The symbols for 1, 2, and 3 were simply horizontal lines. The symbols for 6 and 7 looked similar to their modern forms at first. But they changed over time. By the 900s, 1 was a vertical line instead of a horizontal line. Scribes had connected the lines in the numerals 2 and 3. So these looked much like the modern symbols. This shortcut let scribes avoid lifting their writing tools off the page. Other symbols had changed in various ways. And by this time, the symbol for 0 was in use.
The abacus could be considered the world’s first computer. It was used for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. With the abacus, people could perform these calculations much faster than they could with counting boards or numbers written on paper. The abacus consisted of a rectangular frame divided into two parts. Beads slid up and down along a series of vertical rods in each part. Computing with an abacus was simple. With the device flat on a table, the user moved and counted the beads.