Ancient Computing Technology: From Abacuses to Water Clocks by Michael Woods

By Michael Woods

Were you aware . . .Ancient cultures measured time competently with water clocks? An engineer within the first century B.C. designed an odometer to calculate distance traveled? humans computed the 1st values of pi approximately 4 thousand years in the past? Computing expertise is as previous as human society itself. the 1st people on the earth used simple computing abilities. They counted via carving tally marks in bone. They used physique components and easy instruments to degree. Over the centuries, historic peoples realized extra approximately computing. humans within the old heart East used scales to degree items for buying and selling. the traditional Egyptians wrote textbooks together with multiplication and department difficulties. the traditional chinese language constructed an abacus for quick calculations. historical Greeks made advances in geometry. What forms of instruments and methods did old mathematicians use? Which in their innovations and discoveries have stood the attempt of time? and the way did the ancients set the degree for our personal glossy computing? study extra in historic Computing expertise.

Show description

Read Online or Download Ancient Computing Technology: From Abacuses to Water Clocks (Technology in Ancient Cultures) PDF

Similar science & technology books

Ernest Rutherford and the Atoms

This biography chronicles the lifestyles and medical paintings of the down-to-earth New Zealander who grew to become one of many mythical pioneers of subatomic physics. Rutherford's 3 significant discoveries-including his 1912 revelation that atoms contained nucleuses-created the sector of nuclear physics and assisted in shaping sleek technology.

The Age of Synthesis: 1800-1895 (History of Science.)

Addressing a interval within the heritage of technological know-how marked by way of nice switch, this quantity surveys the clinical achievements that introduced the improvement of classical technological know-how to a detailed and set the level for the breakthroughs of recent technology within the twentieth century. protecting such scientists as Faraday, Darwin, and Pasteur and developments in chemistry, physics, and body structure, The Age of Synthesis: 1800-1895 deals an in-depth examine the tensions and controversies over technological know-how in this interval, and the way society used to be stuck in the midst of some of the disputes.

Maple Leaf in Space. Canada's Astronauts

Marc Garneau, Roberta Bondar, Julie Payette, Robert Thirsk, Chris Hadfield, and extra lately, man Lalibertthe founding father of Cirque de Soleil, all have something in universal: theyre the various only a few Canadians who've been in area. The release of a spaceship is very fascinating. Thats why millions of individuals come to observe.

Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry: Revision Guide

Those foreign A/AS-level technological know-how Revision courses offer exam-focused texts to steer scholars during the content material and abilities of the direction to arrange them for his or her AS and A-level checks. each one advisor within the sequence presents: - creation: containing an outline of the path and the way it truly is assessed, recommendation on revision and taking the exam papers.

Additional info for Ancient Computing Technology: From Abacuses to Water Clocks (Technology in Ancient Cultures)

Sample text

The Dresden Codex, written in around the 1100s, is a compilation of earlier Maya almanacs and astrological and religious information. , when the codex was probably written. Mayan numerals consisted of dots and bars. One dot stood for 1, and two dots stood for 2. One bar stood for 5, and two bars stood for 10. The Maya combined dots and bars to write larger numbers. One bar and four dots, for instance, stood for 9. Two bars and two dots stood for 12. Z e r o Pi o n e e r s The ancient Maya were one of the earliest peoples to use a symbol for zero as a placeholder.

They were part of the Brahmi script. The symbols for 1, 2, and 3 were simply horizontal lines. The symbols for 6 and 7 looked similar to their modern forms at first. But they changed over time. By the 900s, 1 was a vertical line instead of a horizontal line. Scribes had connected the lines in the numerals 2 and 3. So these looked much like the modern symbols. This shortcut let scribes avoid lifting their writing tools off the page. Other symbols had changed in various ways. And by this time, the symbol for 0 was in use.

The abacus could be considered the world’s first computer. It was used for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. With the abacus, people could perform these calculations much faster than they could with counting boards or numbers written on paper. The abacus consisted of a rectangular frame divided into two parts. Beads slid up and down along a series of vertical rods in each part. Computing with an abacus was simple. With the device flat on a table, the user moved and counted the beads.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.26 of 5 – based on 6 votes