By I. M. Kutasov
The aim of utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is to provide in a transparent and concise shape tools of using the knowledge of temperature surveys in deep boreholes in addition to the result of box, laboratory and analytical investigations in geothermics to a large viewers. even supposing a few facets of the topic of this ebook were mentioned in different past books and various papers, utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is the 1st e-book in this subject to be had to the petroleum engineering group. the target of the e-book is to provide the nation of data and prediction of downhole and formations temperatures in the course of good drilling, good of entirety, shut-in and creation. utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is meant for drilling engineers (impact of increased temperatures on good drilling and final touch expertise, Arctic drilling), creation engineers (temperature regime of creation, injection and geothermal partitions, Arctic production), reservoir engineers (temperature box of reservoirs, thermal houses of formations and formation fluids), good logging engineers (interpretation of electric resistance, dust density, and temperature logs), and geophysicists and geologists (interpretation of geophysical facts, calculation of the terrestrial warmth move, reconstruction of previous climates).
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Frozen soils are bodies in which stresses and strains that arise under the influence of an external constant load are not constant, but vary with time, giving rise to relaxation of stresses and creep (an increase in the strains with passage of time). These processes are called rheological. The strong development of rheological processes in frozen soils is due to a peculiarity of their internal bonds in which ice plays a role of major importance (Tsytovich, 1975). 6. In this table W d is the ratio (in percent) of total ice-water content to dry unit weight of the soil.
This m a y occur due to radioactivity, water movement, CHAPTER 2 42 and chemical reactions. 74) where A is the heat rate per unit time per unit volume. As a general example, we will consider a three-layer case (Carslaw and Jaeger, 1959) in which A = A 1 , A = 0 in 0 < x < xl; A = A2, A = A 2 in X 1 < X < X2; /~ : )~3, A = 0 in x > x2, where )~1, )~2, /~a, A2 are constants. 77) where To is the surface temperature and qo is the surface heat flow (at x = 0). 23). To describe the process of free thermal convection of water in a porous medium, caused by t e m p e r a t u r e differences, Rayleigh number ( R a ) and the Nusselt number ( N u ) are used.
74) where A is the heat rate per unit time per unit volume. As a general example, we will consider a three-layer case (Carslaw and Jaeger, 1959) in which A = A 1 , A = 0 in 0 < x < xl; A = A2, A = A 2 in X 1 < X < X2; /~ : )~3, A = 0 in x > x2, where )~1, )~2, /~a, A2 are constants. 77) where To is the surface temperature and qo is the surface heat flow (at x = 0). 23). To describe the process of free thermal convection of water in a porous medium, caused by t e m p e r a t u r e differences, Rayleigh number ( R a ) and the Nusselt number ( N u ) are used.