By Eric T. DeWeaver, Cecilia M. Bitz, L.-Bruno Tremblay
Published by means of the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.
This quantity addresses the quick decline of Arctic sea ice, putting contemporary sea ice decline within the context of earlier observations, weather version simulations and projections, and straightforward versions of the weather sensitivity of sea ice. Highlights of the paintings provided right here comprise
- An appraisal of the position performed through wind forcing in using the decline;
- A reconstruction of Arctic sea ice stipulations sooner than human observations, in keeping with proxy facts from sediments;
- A modeling procedure for assessing the effect of sea ice decline on polar bears, used as enter to the U.S. Fish and natural world Service's choice to checklist the polar undergo as a threatened species below the Endangered Species Act;
- Contrasting stories at the lifestyles of a "tipping point," past which Arctic sea ice decline turns into (or has already turn into) irreversible, together with an exam of the function of the small ice cap instability in international warming simulations;
- A major summertime atmospheric reaction to sea ice aid in an atmospheric basic movement version, suggesting a favorable suggestions and the potential of non permanent weather prediction.
The ebook may be of curiosity to researchers trying to comprehend the new habit of Arctic sea ice, version projections of destiny sea ice loss, and the results of sea ice loss for the traditional and human structures of the Arctic.
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Extra resources for Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications
5 [Hilbrecht, 1996]). It is, rather, attributed to brine extrusion occurring Figure 7. 13, p. 452]). Past records of sea ice extent in northwest North Atlantic are available from the accounts of voyages by Irish monk-explorers and by Vikings who established settlements in Iceland and in southwest Greenland at the end of the first millennium. , sea ice was reported to occur exceptionally. All historical data suggest minimum sea ice extent around Iceland and off Greenland during the medieval warm episode and conditions favorable for navigation across the North Atlantic.
1997, 2001]. Clearly, sea ice recorded important variations during the Holocene, not only in the Arctic seas but also in the subpolar seas and along continental margins of the northwestern North Atlantic. Quantitative Holocene sea ice reconstructions based on dinocysts are available in a number of cores from the northern North Atlantic and adjacent subpolar seas (see Figures 10–12 and Table 1). The results show regionalism in sea ice distribution even more pronounced than at present during the early Holocene.
2001], may result in a further depletion in 18O of the residual brines. As a consequence of the above mentioned converging processes, sea ice formation provides the only situation leading to opposite trends of the salinity and δ values relationship in oceanic water, thus in biogenic carbonates. The interpretation of the δ18O value of foraminifer shells remains difficult because it also results from thermodependent fractionation processes. Nevertheless, δ18O data in biogenic carbonate from Arctic environments can be useful inasmuch as they allow inference about relative rates of sea ice formation.