Artificial satellites and how to observe them by Richard Schmude Jr.

By Richard Schmude Jr.

Эта книга описывает различные искусственные спутники, которые можно наблюдать даже не вооружённым взглядом, от Международной Космической Станции и до всевозможных спутников-шпионов разных стран. Ричард Шмуде подробно их описывает, как они могут наблюдаться любителями, как их распознать, и как предсказать их орбиты, как их сфотографировать и какие исследования доступны любителям при таких наблюдениях.

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The Terrain Mapping Camera on Chandrayaan-1 recorded three images at once in the backward, nadir and forward directions. ). Hyper-Spectral Imaging Spectrometer (HySI) The HySI instrument imaged the lunar surface in 64 different wavelengths of light (around 415–920 nm). It used 64 different filters. With this instrument, astronomers collected both images and spectra. Astronomers have released some results from the HySI. This instrument recorded 64 images of the 5-km crater Barrow H with each filter.

11. Our atmosphere distorts images and is opaque to many wavelengths. Since the nineteenth century, astronomers have built observatories on mountains to minimize the degradation caused by our atmosphere. More recently, they have placed telescopes in outer space. These have produced high-resolution images. Furthermore, space telescopes detect X-ray, ultraviolet and far-infrared wavelengths that our atmosphere blocks. Therefore, they allow astronomers to use a variety of wavelengths in their studies.

In the case of the mirror, the reflected beam of light spreads out gradually. The beam spreads because there are mirror imperfections and also because of scattering caused by air and suspended particles. Therefore, for a given amount of reflected light, the intensity does not drop with increasing distance for perfect specular reflection; it drops a little for nearly specular reflection and it drops rapidly for diffuse reflection. Most satellites reflect diffusely. One exception is the Iridium satellite.

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