Astronomy by William T. Skilling; Robert S. Richardson

By William T. Skilling; Robert S. Richardson

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Of inverse squares applied to the moon. As a test to find certainly whether attraction falls off as the square of the distance increases, Newton applied the law to the earth's influence on t;ition, The law He knew that the distance a body falls in a second can the moon. be taken as a measure of the force of attraction causing it to fall. He also knew that a stone at the surface of the earth will fall 193 inches in a second. The moon is about 60 times as far from the center of the earth as the surface of the earth is from the center.

That the floor turns under the At the poles the pendulum would seem to turn all the way around in 24 hours. At the equator it would not turn at all, for the direction of any line under it would be unchanged by the earth's rotation. At any location between equator and pole the time of turning would be between 24 hours and an infinite time, depending on the latitude. By means of a trigonometric formula the rate can be calculated for any latitude. ) Foucault pendulums may be seen in several colleges and in the United States.

We can now determine the circumference of the earth, for since there are 360° in a circle, the circumference of the earth must equal 360 X 70 = 25,200 miles. (The exact polar circumference of the earth is 24,819 miles). Principle of Era- Fig. 8. tosthenes' method of measur- ing the size of the earth. At A the sun is at the zenith, or directly which is overhead. At £, 1400 miles north of A^ the zenith distance of the sun is tance The 20°. of the corresponds between A zenith dis- sun from B the angle to and B at the center of the earth.

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