Balanced Geological Cross-Sections: An Essential Technique by Nicholas B. Woodward

By Nicholas B. Woodward

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Published by way of the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Short classes in Geology Series.

The first variation of those brief direction notes used to be ready through Woodward and Boyer for the SE part assembly of the Geological Society of the USA held in Knoxville, Tennessee, March 1985, and released as Dept. of Geol. Sci. reviews in Geology, v. eleven. The Structural Geology and Tectonics department of the GSA thus invited Woodward, Boyer and Suppe to provide a day brief path on the nationwide Geological Society of the USA assembly in Orlando, Florida, November 1985 (v. eleven, 2d edition). we're tremendous happy which will perform the overseas Geological Congress and feature thoroughly revised the current path notes.

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Since then, Boyer [1986a] has . suggested that observed can-also be produced by simultaneous thrust movements. This ;ill be discussed in Session 7. A duplex constitutes a vertical displacement transfer zone from a l o w e ~ t oan upper detachment [Boyer, 1978; Boyer and Elliott, 19821. In Figure 6-7a, a duplex is shown evolving through the addition of three imbricate slices. The initial state includes a major thrust sheet of - 41 displacement, So. As the first imbricate is emplaced its displacement is fed upward into the roof thrust So + S1 and so on through the addition of imbricates 2 and 3.

47 48 BALANCED GEOLOGICAL CROSS SECTIONS Fig. 7-5. Evolution of the Darby thrust system [from Jones, 19841. Fig. 7-6. Darby/Prospect section of Dixon [1982, reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists]. that the Tunp developed in an east-to-west sequence, opposite to that of the major thrusts in the Wyoming thrust belt. Using sequential restorations Delphia and Bombolakis [I9881 demonstrated that imbricates at the top of the Darby ramp in the southern IdahoWyoming-Utah thrust belt formed in a break-back sequence.

Foreland is towards top of page. The stippled unit is older; the heavy arrow shows direction of overthrusting [from Diegel, 19861. one. The branch lines mark the limits of the fault block between two faults. We used cutoff line patterns to indicate that a hinterland to foreland thrust was likely where all thrusts cut up section forward. Branch line patterns alone do not tell us anything about thrust sequences. If a late low-angle thrust cuts an earlier high-angle one (Fig. 5-3a), it creates a leading branch line which is similar to that of a duplex.

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