By Sean Dooley
As a self-proclaimed twitcher—a birdwatching extremist who travels round the kingdom attempting to capture a glimpse of as many species of birds as possible—the writer took a yr off in 2002 with the target of seeing seven-hundred birds and thereby breaking the nationwide checklist for many birds noticeable in a single 12 months. during this fun memoir, he recounts his quest, together with how he spent all of his inheritance from the premature demise of his mom and dad to make his dream a fact. Populated by way of strange characters and engaging species of birds, this half confessional–part travelogue for either poultry nerds and the overall inhabitants follows the writer as he works out what it capability to be basic regardless of his surprisingly avid compulsion towards twitching.
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Extra resources for Big Twitch: One Man, One Continent, a Race Against Time-A True Story about Birdwatching
5–2 h but its mode of transport in the blood provides some protection against its degradation and hence provides a ‘store’ of cortisol (Barnett, 2003). It is partitioned in the blood in three ways. Between 60% and 80% of the total cortisol is bound to albumin, which has a low afﬁnity but a high capacity, meaning that while it is weakly bound, a considerable amount can be bound. From 10% to 20% is bound to transcortin or corticosteroid binding globulin, which has a high afﬁnity but low capacity, meaning that it binds a small amount but strongly (Westphal, 1971).
Thus, the focus of Fig. 4. A pregnant sow exhibiting the stereotypy of bar biting. Farm Animal Welfare 37 the welfare concept of biological functioning extends to the consequences of the stress response (and other adaptive responses, such as behaviour) rather than the response per se. Acute stress responses can occur to pleasant as well as unpleasant stimuli and this is often used to criticize the use of corticosteroids to measure stress. , 1974) and voluntary exercise in humans (Sutton and Casey, 1975) both result in increased plasma corticosteroid concentrations.
In other words, increased basal secretion of corticosteroids has signiﬁcant ﬁtness consequences for the animal, and it is these biological and ﬁtness effects that reﬂect both the magnitude of the stress response and the welfare implications. While the role and actions of corticosteroids in acute and chronic stress responses are well known, this is not to imply that the HPA axis is the only neuroendocrine axis affected by stressors. There is also involvement of the somatotrophic and thyroid axes and of other hypothalamic and pituitary hormones such as arginine vasopressin and prolactin, respectively.