Cambridge IGCSE Biology by D. G. Mackean, Dave Hayward

By D. G. Mackean, Dave Hayward

Counseled via Cambridge overseas Examinations. The bestselling name, built via overseas specialists - now up to date to supply complete assurance of the center and prolonged themes within the most recent syllabus. - features a student's CD-ROM that includes interactive checks and perform for all exam papers - Covers the middle and complement sections of the up to date syllabus - Supported through the main finished diversity of extra fabric, together with instructor assets, Laboratory Books, perform Books and Revision publications - Written via well known, professional authors with titanic event of educating and analyzing foreign skills

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G. fresh water. g. sea water, the cells may lose water by osmosis. These effects are described more fully later. (a) There is a higher concentration of free water molecules outside the cell than inside, so water diffuses into the cell. 9 (b) The extra water makes the cell swell up. Osmosis in an animal cell Water entering the cell will make it swell up and, unless the extra water is expelled in some way, the cell will burst. Conversely, if the cells are surrounded by a solution which is more concentrated than the cytoplasm, water will pass out of the cell by osmosis and the cell will shrink.

They have an outer membrane and an inner membrane with many inward-pointing folds. Mitochondria are most numerous in regions of rapid chemical activity and are responsible for producing energy from food substances through the process of aerobic respiration (see Chapter 12). Note that prokaryotes do not possess mitochondria or rough endoplasmic reticulum in their cytoplasm. 8(a) is a diagram of an animal cell magnified 10 000 times. 8(b) is an electron micrograph of a liver cell. Organelles in the cytoplasm can be seen clearly.

Can you explain why? 2 Study your graph. What happened to the rate of diffusion as the ammonia travelled further along the tube? Can you explain why? 4 Diffusion and particle size n Take a 15 cm length of dialysis tubing which has been soaked in water and tie a knot tightly at one end. n Use a dropping pipette to partly fill the tubing with a mixture of 1% starch solution and 1% glucose solution. n Rinse the tubing and test-tube under the tap to remove all traces of starch and glucose solution from the outside of the dialysis tubing.

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