Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry Coursebook by Lawrie Ryan, Roger Norris

By Lawrie Ryan, Roger Norris

Absolutely revised and up-to-date content material matching new Cambridge overseas Examinations 9701 syllabus for first exam in 2016. counseled through Cambridge foreign Examinations, the second one version of the AS/A point Chemistry Coursebook comprehensively covers the entire wisdom and abilities scholars want for AS/A point Chemistry 9701 (first exam 2016). Written through well known specialists in Chemistry, the textual content is written in an obtainable variety with overseas inexperienced persons in brain. The Coursebook is simple to navigate with colour-coded sections to tell apart among AS and a degree content material. Self-assessment questions let beginners to trace their development and exam-style questions aid inexperienced persons to arrange completely for his or her examinations. modern contexts and functions are mentioned all through bettering the relevance and curiosity for newcomers.

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Example text

Note that this is the same as the electronic configuration of neon, the element with 10 electrons in each atom. Negative ions are formed when atoms gain electrons. The sulfide ion, S2– (proton number = 16), has 18 electrons. Its electronic configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6, which is the same as argon, the element with 18 electrons in each atom. Note that, in general, electrons in the outer subshell are removed when metal ions form their positive ions. However, the d-block elements behave slightly differently.

The main energy levels (shells) are given principal quantum numbers n = 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. The lowest energy level (n = 1) is closest to the nucleus. ■ The shells may be divided into subshells known as s, p and d subshells, which can hold a maximum of 2, 6 and 10 electrons, respectively. ■ The region of space in which an electron is likely to be found is called an orbital. Each subshell has a number of orbitals which can each hold a maximum of two electrons. Subshells s, p and d have 1, 3 and 5 orbitals, respectively.

The further the outer electron shell is from the nucleus, the lower the ionisation energy. 3 Shielding effect of inner electrons As all electrons are negatively charged, they repel each other. Electrons in full inner shells repel electrons in outer shells. Full inner shells of electrons prevent the full nuclear charge being felt by the outer electrons. This is called shielding. The greater the shielding of outer electrons by the inner electron shells, the lower the attractive forces between the nucleus and the outer electrons.

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