By David Bevan
Those foreign A/AS-level technological know-how Revision publications supply exam-focused texts to steer scholars throughout the content material and talents of the path to organize them for his or her AS and A-level tests. each one advisor within the sequence presents: - creation: containing an outline of the path and the way it really is assessed, suggestion on revision and taking the exam papers. - content material counsel: offers a precis of the evidence and ideas you should comprehend for the exam. - talents: explains the data-handling abilities it is important to resolution many of the questions within the written papers. It additionally explains the sensible abilities that you'll want as a way to good within the functional exam. - Questions and solutions: includes a specimen exam paper that you should test, through a suite of student's solutions for every query, with reviews from an examiner that can assist you establish precisely what's required within the examination.
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Extra resources for Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry: Revision Guide
34 In addition, any non-bonded pairs of electrons will repel bonded pairs, but occupy more space. This means that the bond angles are widened. 9 effect if we compare three molecules, each with four pairs of electrons — methane, 2 Aug 2010 CH4, ammonia, NH3, and water, H 2O. 5°, but Eleanor Jones ammonia has a lone pair of electrons that squeezes the H N H bond angle to 107°. 5°. 9. 9 Bond angles in methane, ammonia and water Giant molecular structures As well as forming simple molecules like those shown on the page opposite, it is possible to form giant molecular structures.
8 shows the difference between a typical alloy, such as brass, and a steel (interstitial alloy), where the small carbon atoms fit between metal atoms. 8 Structure of (a) a typical alloy and (b) a steel Metals have to be mined and separated from the waste rock. Today, most of the ores rich in metals have already been mined and we are using ores that contain much less metal. Under these circumstances it makes sense to try to recycle metals because new extraction from low-grade ores requires huge amounts of energy.
Remember that the more positive E o will be a reduction. ●● Draw anti-clockwise arrows to help predict the overall reaction. For example, consider the reaction between Fe2+ ions and chlorine gas. 59 V E o cell is positive. Therefore, when chlorine gas oxidises iron(II) ions to iron(III) ions, it is reduced to chloride ions. 63 6 Electrochemistry The effects of non-standard conditions For most of the work you will do with electrode potentials, you can assume that the conditions are standard, but you do need to know the effects of changing the concentration of the aqueous ion.